Biotechnology, Diseases, Gene Therapy


Biotechnology is the term given to the branch of science that employs knowledge, techniques, and genetic engineering methods for creating various products using living organisms as raw material. Although this term has been recently adopted, humans have long been manipulating biological processes for their own benefit. Biotechnology is multidisciplinary and encompasses various fields of knowledge, with significant progress achieved over the years, particularly in the medical and cosmetic sectors. Through genetic engineering, it has become possible to edit genes more precisely, revolutionizing the study and manipulation of DNA and allowing the proposal and use of strategies that were once unthinkable in the scientific field to address contemporary issues. Among its most recent contributions are the development of new drugs and biopharmaceuticals, vaccines, cellular, genetic, and protein therapies, as well as the production of biocosmetics. However, there are still challenges to be faced in the extensive use of genetic engineering, ranging from production costs and the success of the technique at the molecular level to ethical issues surrounding the application of this technology. Thus, this literature review aims to discuss the most recent advances, applications, and future perspectives of biotechnology and genetic engineering in the scientific field.


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Biografia do Autor

Yasmin Moreto Guaitolini

Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES).

Camilly Victória Campanharo

Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES).

Antônio Vithor Prinz Moraes

Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES).

Marllon Cindra Sant'Ana

Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES).

Isabele Pagani Pavan

Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES).

Matheus Correia Casotti

Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES).

Iuri Drumond Louro

Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES).

Débora Dummer Meira

Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo (UFES).


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BHARDWAJ, A. et al. TALENs-an indispensable tool in the era of CRISPR: a mini review. Journal, genetic engineering & biotechnology, v. 19, n. 1, p. 125, ago 2021. DOI:

BOCH, J. et al. Breaking the code of DNA binding specificity of TAL-type III effectors. Science, v. 326, p. 1509–1512, dez. 2009. DOI:

CARDOZO, Karina H. M. et al. Metabolites from algae with economical impact. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part C: Toxicology & Pharmacology, v. 146, n. 1-2, p. 60-78, 2007. DOI:

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DASH, P. K. et al. Sequential LASER ART and CRISPR Treatments Eliminate HIV-1 in a Subset of Infected Humanized Mice. Nature Communications, v. 10, n. 1, 2 jul. 2019.

DELHOVE, J. et al. Public acceptability of gene therapy and gene editing for human use: a systematic review. Human gene therapy, v. 31, n. 1-2, p. 20-46, jan. 2020. DOI:

DOS SANTOS, V. S.; WIETHÖLTER, P. Contribuições da engenharia genética no tratamento de doenças / Contributions of genetic engineering in the treatment of diseases. Brazilian Journal of Development, [S. l.], v. 7, n. 3, p. 31157–31176, 2021. DOI: 10.34117/bjdv7n3-711. Disponível em: Acesso em: 27 dec. 2023. DOI:

EMBRAPA. Aquicultura. Brasilia: Embrapa, 2020. Disponivel em: Acessado em: 22 dez. 2020.

HONG, W. et al., A new and promising application of gene editing: CRISPRcontrolled smart materials for tissue engineering, bioelectronics, and diagnostics, China Life Science, n. 62, v. 11, p. 1547–1549, nov. 2019. DOI:

HUANG, C.-H.; LEE, K.-C.; DOUDNA, J. A. Applications of CRISPR-Cas Enzymes in Cancer Therapeutics and Detection. Trends in Cancer, v. 4, n. 7, p. 499–512, jul. 2018. DOI:

LINO, C. A.; HARPER, J. C.; CARNEY, J. P.; TIMLIN, J. A. Delivering CRISPR: a review of the challenges and approaches. Drug delivery, v. 25, n. 1, p. 1234–1257, 2018. DOI:

NAEEM, M. et al. Developed Strategies to Minimize the Off-Target Effects in CRISPR-Cas-Mediated Genome Editing. Cells, n. 7, p. 1608, jul. 2020. DOI:

PAUL, B. et al. CRISPR-Cas12a: Functional overview and applications. Biomedical journal, v. 4, n. 1, p. 8–17, fev. 2020. DOI:

ROSALES-MENDOZA, Sergio et al. The potential of algal biotechnology to produce antiviral compounds and biopharmaceuticals. Molecules, v. 25, n. 18, p. 4049, 2020. DOI:

SALZMAN, R. et al. Addressing the Value of Gene Therapy and Enhancing Patient Access to Transformative Treatments. Molecular Therapy, v. 26, p. 2717-2726, dez. 2018. DOI:

SAYED, N. et al. Gene therapy: Comprehensive overview and therapeutic applications. Life sciences, v. 294, n. 120375, dez. 2020. DOI:

WANI, A. K. et al. Genome centric engineering using ZFNs, TALENs and CRISPR-Cas9 systems for trait improvement and disease control in Animals. Veterinary research communications, v. 47, n. 1, p. 1–16, jan. 2023. DOI:

YAN, Na et al. The potential for microalgae as bioreactors to produce pharmaceuticals. International journal of molecular sciences, v. 17, n. 6, p. 962, 2016. DOI:

YASSA, N. W. et al. Ipriflavone and Ipriflavone loaded albumin nanoparticles reverse lipopolysaccharide induced neuroinflammation in rats. PLOS ONE, v. 15, n. 8, p. e0237929, 21 ago. 2020. DOI:

ZHANG, C. et al. Advances in mRNA vaccines for infectious diseases. Frontiers in Immunology, v. 10, n. 594, 27 mar. 2019. DOI:




Como Citar

Moreto Guaitolini, Y., Campanharo, C. V., Prinz Moraes, A. V., Cindra Sant’Ana, M., Pagani Pavan, I., Correia Casotti, M., Drumond Louro, I., & Dummer Meira, D. (2024). BIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING: CURRENT ADVANCEMENTS, EMERGING CHALLENGES, AND FUTURE HORIZONS IN MODERN SCIENCE. RECIMA21 - Revista Científica Multidisciplinar - ISSN 2675-6218, 5(2), e524797.